Edmunds Tested: electric car range and consumption

Edmunds Tested: electric car range and consumption


*Range tested at maximum battery charge to align with EPA estimates. The manufacturer recommends a lower battery charge level for daily use to preserve battery life.

What is the EPA estimated limit?

In short, it’s the estimated number of miles in combined city and highway driving (using a mix of 55% highway and 45% city driving) before needing to recharge, according to the EPA’s test method.

But what exactly is that method? Firstly, the vehicle is fully charged and parked overnight. The next day, the vehicle is driven on a dynamometer—it’s like a treadmill for cars—on simulated city and highway routes until the battery is depleted. The total distance traveled is multiplied by a correction factor that the EPA has determined is closer to what drivers can expect to achieve in the real world. The value of this correction factor, which is always less than 1 but greater than 0, is determined by the number of drive cycles a vehicle is tested on.

In short, there is definitely a method to the EPA’s madness, but the process is lab based, and EV owners don’t drive their cars to the lab. So what’s the real world’s version? That’s where Edmunds’ EV range testing comes in.

What is the EPA estimated consumption?

Similar to miles per gallon (mpg) for fuel-burning vehicles, this metric represents the energy consumption of electric vehicles in kilowatt-hours per hundred miles (kWh/100 miles). A battery stores energy in kilowatt-hours like a gas tank stores fuel in gallons. This value tells how much energy, in kilowatt-hours, a vehicle will use to travel 100 miles.

However, unlike mpg, where a larger number is better (for example, a vehicle that gets 30 mpg is better than one that gets 20 mpg), the smaller number in kWh/100 miles is better because you Miles are using less battery power. So a vehicle that uses 20 kWh/100 mi is more efficient than one that uses 30 kWh/100 mi.

In EPA testing, once a vehicle’s battery is depleted, it is recharged using a manufacturer-provided charger for that vehicle. Energy consumption is then determined mathematically from recharging energy, energy-discharging data from the vehicle, and the distance traveled for each cycle. Recharge energy includes any charging losses due to inefficiencies in the manufacturer’s charger.

What is Edmunds Tested Range?

Edmunds starts with a full battery charge and drives an electric vehicle on a mix of city and highway roads (approximately 60% city, 40% highway) until the battery is almost completely empty. (We target 10 miles of range remaining for safety.) Miles driven and indicated range remaining are added together for the Edmonds total test range figure. We prefer to use a higher percentage of city road driving because we believe it is more representative of typical EV use.

What is Edmunds Tested Consumption?

When a vehicle has completed its road loop and the battery is almost empty, it is charged to full capacity. Kilowatt-hours used from plug-in to full charge are tracked and then we calculate consumption based on miles traveled (subtracted from remaining range). This process takes charging losses into account in the consumption numbers tested by Edmunds.

What is the range % difference EPA vs Edmunds?

This figure is the difference between the EPA’s range estimate and the range tested in Edmunds’ real-world test. A positive percentage (in green) means the Edmunds exceeded the limit estimated by the EPA, while a negative percentage (in red) means a vehicle fell short of its EPA limit during our testing .

EPA vs Edmonds consumption what is the % difference?

This figure is the difference between the EPA’s energy consumption estimate and the energy consumption Edmunds calculated based on our real-world testing. A positive percentage (in green) means a vehicle used much less energy than its EPA estimate and was more efficient in Edmunds’ test. A negative percentage (in red) means a vehicle used more energy than its EPA estimate and was less efficient in Edmunds’ test. Remember, if you’re talking about EVs, the lower the kWh/100 mile number, the better.

What is ambient temperature and why does it matter?

Ambient temperature – how cold or hot it is – matters a lot when it comes to electric vehicle range, so we list the daily average temperatures on the day of the test. California, and more specifically Los Angeles, has one of the more temperate climates in the world, which helps keep our testing conditions relatively constant throughout the year. But since we can’t control the weather, we thought we’d at least report it.

How does Edmunds test it?

roads

Edmonds drives on specific road routes that cover both highway and city driving around the greater Los Angeles area. We aim for a mix of 60% city driving and 40% highway, recognizing that most electric vehicle owners will spend more time in stop-and-go traffic than on the open highway. Since no electric vehicle has the same range, the route length is adapted to each vehicle.

methodology

In EPA tests, a vehicle is run at default settings at startup. If more efficient drive modes are available, or if you can increase the level of regenerative braking but the vehicle does not default to these settings, they will not be used. Edmunds’ standard practice is to use the most efficient drive mode as long as it does not affect the level of safety or practical comfort, such as deactivating the climate control system or power to accelerate or maintain reasonable highway speeds. to reduce significantly.

We run with the windows up and the climate control set to auto at 72 degrees, and during stops we max out the regenerative braking. We obey posted speed limits and maintain a distance of 5 mph from them when traffic and conditions permit.

Which number is more accurate, EPA or Edmunds?

The short answer is neither. So many factors contribute to how far an electric vehicle will travel on a single charge that it’s impossible to draw a single figure for every situation. The EPA’s testing is highly controlled and standardized, but as we found in our testing, real-world correlations can vary dramatically depending on the vehicle.

Because Edmunds’ test uses a more conservative driving style and places more emphasis on city driving than highway driving (compared to the EPA’s mix), our figures will often be on the higher end of the range, which usually equates to better efficiency. Are. But this is not always the case. Overall, our statistics are meant to provide EV owners and potential customers with an additional data point so that they can make more informed decisions.

,To date, every Tesla vehicle we’ve driven on our real-world test route has failed to hit its EPA class estimate within the test parameters described above, while most non-Tesla vehicles have exceeded their EPA estimates. have taken. please look chart above for our full test results.

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